In my last post I translated a piece by Keiko Matsunaga about Gion and Chrysanthemums. Here, Matsunaga-sensei gives her recipe and technique for making turnips look like chrysanthemums, which is not only a delicious seasonal recipe but also provides practice in perfecting the skills of knife-handling. Following the recipe I have added a video to demonstrate the technique. You can also read more about “chysanthemum turnip” pickles at Kyoto Foodie.
Matsunaga-sensei’s Kikka-kabura (Chrysanthemum Turnips)
1 large turnip
3 pieces of konbu, each about 3cms square
2-3 small dried chillies
Sweetened rice vinegar, made by adding 35gm of sugar per 100ml of rice vinegar
Preparing the turnip:
1. Cut the greens off the top of the turnip, and after washing the turnip thoroughly, peel it and then cut it in half lengthways.
2. Cut a slice about 2.5cm from the top end.
3. About 5mm inside the skin side, you’ll see a ring line. No matter how long you boil the turnip, this fibrous outer ring won’t soften, so cut back to that line (don’t discard this outer cutting though – you can use it in other recipes).
4. Place the turnip slice flat and make fine lengthways incisions close together all along the slice, cutting about 2/3 into the thickness, being careful not to cut all the way through.
5. Turn the turnip slice around 90° and do the same thing widthways.
6. Carefully turn the turnip up-side-down, with the cuts on the bottom, and then cut the turnip slice into 2cm wide squares
Directions for making Chrysanthemum Turnip pickles:
1. Take the turnip squares you’ve prepared as per above and weigh them. Calculate 2% of the weight and that is how much salt you are going to need to use. Cover the turnips with salt and put aside for 30 minutes to an hour, so that the turnips soften. Then drain off the excess moisture from the turnips.
2. Rinse thoroughly in running water, then gently squeeze out the water, being careful not to disturb the fine cuts.
3. Add the konbu and the dried chillies to the sweetened vinegar and then put the turnips in the vinegar and leave them in the refrigerator for 1 to 2 days to pickle.
4. To serve, separate out the little ‘petals’ so that it looks like a chrysanthemum, and add a thin slice of chilli in the middle for garnish.
In this video, the cook shows us a nifty trick to prevent the knife from cutting all the way through the turnip by using chopsticks.
Chef Satoshi Iida has a blog that he updates twice a week, in which he refers to activities occurring at his restaurant, Dōraku, or classes he is teaching, or observations about the seasons. I was reading about his kaiseki class for this month and I thought I’d unpack the items he records as a way of further exploring the art of kaiseki. In the class he discusses aspects of kaiseki and then the participants enjoy a kaiseki meal based on his lecture. Although sadly I can’t attend his class, I found the list of items he records in his blog fascinating. It also highlights the way that food culture in Kyoto is so intimately associated with other arts such as tea ceremony, ceramics, calligraphy, incense, and so on. [Cate]
Omukai: Hiramasa no konbu-jime
Omukai is the honorific form of “mukazuke,” which is the first course in cha-kaiseki (kaiseki for tea ceremony), and in a formal kaiseki meal it is a sashimi course. Mukazuke in traditional cha-kaiseki is a small tray arranged in a triangular shape of three dishes: a sashimi dish, a bowl of rice and a bowl of soup. Hiramasa is yellowtail amberjack or kingfish. Kombu-jime is a technique whereby the slices of fish are sandwiched between two layers of kombu, which is a very popular way of serving sashimi in Kyoto. Here is a great video showing how it’s done (I’ll translate this one in the next blog)
Shiru: Tōgan to Awafu
Traditionally, in cha-kaiseki, the soup (shiru) contains the flesh of a melon of some kind and a piece of fu (wheat gluten); in this case, Chef Iida has used winter melon and awafu, which is wheat gluten with millet added to give it a yellowish tinge. Fu is an important staple of shojin ryori and Kyoto is famous for its fu cuisine.
Nimono: Guji and Junsai
The next course in traditional cha-kaiseki is the main dish, called “nimono-wan,” which literally means something that has been boiled or simmered and refers to the dish being cooked rather than raw. Guji is tilefish. Junsai is an interesting aquatic plant that grows in shallow ponds and is surrounded by a thick mucilage that is prized in Japanese cuisine. It is harvested fresh between June and September.
Yakimono: Masu no Kenchin-yaki
Yakimono is a broiled or grilled dish. Masu is trout and here it is prepared in the “kenshin” style, which means stuffed with a mixture of a variety of finely sliced vegetables including tofu and then baked.
Shiizakana: Hamo zaku-zaku
Shiizakana course is usually a substantial dish like a nabe (casserole), although I’m not sure how Chef Iida prepared this dish: hamo is conger pike eel and “zaku-zaku” means “roughly chopped.”
Hassun: Spot-billed Duck and Truffle-stuffed Tiger Prawns
The Hassun course is usually served as the second course of full kaiseki banquet, although it is sometimes served in the middle courses. This course is served on a small lacquer tray with two delicacies: one from the mountains or fields, and one from the ocean.
Kōnomono: Takuan and Kokabu
Kōnomono is another word for tsukemono, pickled vegetables; the character 香, meaning smell or scent or fragrance, refers to the pungent odour of the pickles. Takuan is pickled daikon radish, perhaps the most common pickle in Japan, and kokabu is pickled turnip, which is a Kyoto speciality because the kokabu variety of turnip is one of the so-called kyoyasai, vegetables that are grown in Kyoto prefecture and especially associated with Kyoto cuisine.
After listing the foods that were prepared for this presentation, Chef Iida goes on to discuss the dishes he used…
“In general I use dishes such as Hanshichi 半七, Ōhi 大樋, Kyō-yaki 京焼, and so on.”
Hanshichi ware comes from the family of artisans named Shirai Hanshichi, who originally were associated with the Imado pottery kilns in Tokyo, but after the Great Kanto Earthquake in 1924, the family moved to Hyogo-ken and their kiln is now located Mito city. They are known for their tea ceremony wares.
Kyō-yaki is the generic term for ceramics from Kyoto, specifically from the Higashiyama area, which have evolved several distinct styles of ceramics.
Chef Iida then goes on to itemise the provenance of the various tea items used in the kaiseki presentation:
“The scroll hanging in the machiai [meeting room] is by Yokoyama Seiki”
Seiki Yokoyama (1792-1864) was a Kyoto artist who was well-known for his bird and landscape paintings. Here is an example I found at Erik Thomsen’s gallery (the closeup of the quail is especially lovely)
“The scroll in the main room is by Shunoku Sōen”
Sōen Shunoku (1529-1611) was a Rinzai Zen monk who was born in southern Kyoto and who became the abbot of Daitokuji, one of the five great Zen temples in Kyoto, which has a long and close association with the development of the tea ceremony.
“The kama [iron pot for boiling the water for tea ceremony] is by Yoshiha Yohei”
Yoshiha Yohei is the current master of the iron works of the same name, located in the south of Kyoto, which specialises in tea ceremony ironware, including pots for boiling the water, vases, bowls and bells.
“The incense container (kōgō) is made by Kawamoto Gorō”
Gorō Kawamoto (1919-1986) was a multi-talented craftsman who excelled in dyeing and ceramics; he received the prestigious art award Nihon Toji Kyokai in 1959 and his work is held in many museums, including the Kyoto Museum of Modern Art and the Tokyo Museum of Modern Art.
“The charcoal tongs (hibashi) are made by Jōeki”
Nakagawa Jōeki is a family of metal artists that have been making tea ceremony implements in Kyoto for about 400 years.
“The tea caddy (cha-ire) is Shigaraki ware”
Cha-ire is a pottery tea caddy with a lid that is lined with gold and is usually used when preparing thick tea (koicha). Shigaraki ware is made in Shigaraki, in Shiga prefecture, to the east of Kyoto, and is one of the “Six Old Kilns” of Japan. The simple, unpretentious, yet naturally beautiful pottery is particularly suited to the wabi-sabi of tea ceremony.
“The tea scoop (chashaku) was made by Daiki Ōshō”
A chashaku is carved from a single piece of bamboo, but its elegant simplicity belies its artistic merit. Daiki Tachibana (1898-2005) was a high priest of Daitokuji temple in Kyoto, the abbot of one of the subtemples of this great Rinzai Zen temple complex, Nyoian, as well as holding various administrative positions such as president of Hanazono University. He was also a tea master and made many tea implements himself, such as this chashaku, which is poetically inscribed “hagi no shuku” (“the place where the red clover resides”) and is currently for sale for US$1,300.
“The tea caddy bag (shifuku) is made from Nishijin brocade”
Nishijin is an area of Kyoto that is historically associated with weaving, especially the luxurious brocade that Kyoto textiles are famous for.
“The tea caddy (natsume) is antique Ujibashi lacquerware.”
The natsume tea caddy is usually made of lacquer and is for making thin tea (usuicha).
“For koicha, a variety of Hagi tea bowls were used; for usuicha, a mixture of Shigaraki and Kyōyaki shallow tea bowls were used.”
Hagi tea bowls are prized among tea connoisseurs, you can read about them here and here. Shallow tea bowls, called hira chawan, are especially associated with summer.
“The flower vase was made by Isesaki Jun.”
Jun Isesaki (b.1936) is considered the greatest contemporary Bizen ceramic artist and was designated as a Living National Treasure of Japan in 2004.
“Flowers: Rose of Sharon (gionmamori), Asiatic dayflower (tsuyukusa), begonia (shūkaidō), morning glory (hirugao).”
“The omogashi sweets were kinako mochi served in antique shunkei lacquer high-sided tray (fuchidaka).”
Omogashi sweets are sometimes called moist sweets and are served with koicha. Shunkei lacquer is a method of applying transparent lacquer so that the grain of the wood can still be seen. Kinako mochi is softened mochi coated in roasted soybean flour and sugar. Here is how to make it yourself in the microwave…
“The higashi sweets were wasanbon-uchimono served on antique pinewood trays (bon).”
Higashi sweets are served with usuicha and are called dry sweets. Wasanbon-uchimono are sweets made only of compressed refined Japanese sugar that are pressed into moulds to create shaped sweets that are appropriate to the season.
Whew! What a gastronomic marathon! And Chef Iida does a different kaiseki presentation twice a month!
This is a recipe from Matsunaga-sensei’s cookbook, for pickled rakkyo, a Japanese scallion that is harvested in mid-summer, pickled with takanotsume [hawk’s claw] chilli peppers…
This is a simple pickling method that anyone can do. The characteristic smell and spiciness of pickled rakkyo, with its nice crunchy texture, can be enjoyed throughout the year. I enjoy eating these pickles every day because they go well with so many dishes.
Rakkyo bulbs (cut and rinsed) 1 kg
Salt 50-60 gms
Rice vinegar 500-600 mls
Sugar 300-400 gms
Takanotsume dried chillies 2 or 3
A wide-rimmed preserving jar
1) Place the rice vinegar and sugar in a saucepan and heat gently. When the sugar has dissolved, remove from the heat and set aside to cool.
2) Rinse the rakkyo in water.
3) Put the rakkyo into a saucepan with enough water to cover the bulbs and bring to the boil. Remove from heat.
4) Drain the rakkyo in a colander and while it is still hot, sprinkle the salt over the rakkyo and mix in well. Leave the rakkyo in the colander to cool.
5) Place the rakkyo in the preserving jar with the takanostume chillies and pour in the liquid from (1).
6) The pickles will be ready to eat in about one month and will keep for up to one year.
Mibuna is one of Kyoto’s designated traditional vegetables called kyo-yasai, which feature in Kyoto’s unique culinary genres such as obanzai style cooking. It is a mustard green with a delicate flavour that is a naturally occurring hybrid of mizuna. Mibuna is at its peak in the middle of May. The name means a “herb that comes from Mibu,” which is an area in Kyoto city surrounding Mibu-dera, a 1000-year-old temple that is famous for its Kyogen (comic Japanese drama). Recently there has been a great revival of interest in Mibu because of the popularity of the TV series Shinsengumi about a special police force that was formed there in 1863. Nowadays, mibuna is mainly produced by small family-based farmers in Hiyoshi village, just north of Nantan city in Kyoto prefecture.
Today’s recipe is a simple pickle dish that is used as an accompaniment to rice and is also found in other Kyoto dishes, which will be added in the days to come.
壬生菜の塩漬け – mibuna no shiodzuke
20gms of salt per 500gms of mibuna
Thinly sliced red chili pepper
1) Wash the mibuna well and drain thoroughly
2) Cut the mibuna into 2cm lengths and place in a bowl
3) Mix in the salt and chili slices, kneading the salt into the mibuna
4) Place a lid into the bowl so that it covers over the mibuna, then add a heavy weight (such a large can of fruit) and leave it for about 8 to 10 hours
Source: Yosu Yoshida from Nanba Farmer’s Cooperative